.

Welcome to My HO Model Railroad Blog
This Blog is about my HO Model Railroad Hobby and how I model the Southern Pacific from my memories of the mid 1950s era as a teenager. I wrote a short synopsis of my back ground that can be found by going to my About Me page.

My layout is set in the mid 1950s in the Southern New Mexico/West Texas area. I grew up in El Paso Texas during the end of the Steam Era and lived in Alamogordo, NM during the 1960s & 70s. My wife and I are both retired and now reside in Bakersfield California. We have lived on both ends of the Southern Pacific Cab Forward Southern Route.

This is a simple track layout drawing of my Model Railroad.




You can click on the colored text to follow the links.


I moved the About Me & My Layout articles to their own page because they seldom change.
Updated December 5, 2014

To go to my current Locomotive Inventory click here.
Updated September 14, 2015

To go to my additional pages scroll down to the bottom of my Blog, there are links to navigate my blog as well as other model railroad interests.

You can send comments or ask questions at 
melsmodelrailroad@gmail.com 


Thanks for taking the time to visit my Blog!
Mel





September 10, 2018 Updated Arduino UNO Random Lighting Project

There is a new updated Sketch toward the end of this post adding six more outputs making it a 20 port light controller.

Updated October 10, 2018:


I added a Test Connector and Sketch to check the operation of the high current driver chips. 


Original Post August, 2016

I did a redesign of my random light controller sketch and expansion board from 12 to 14 outputs.  This is the 14 output sketch:

================



#define numleds  14                                                     
byte ledpins [ ] =  { 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13 } ;
void setup( )  {                 
    for ( int  i=1; i <= numleds;  i++ )  {    
    pinMode ( ledpins [ i ], OUTPUT) ;
    digitalWrite ( ledpins [ i ] , HIGH) ;
   }
 
}
void loop ( )  { 
                digitalWrite ( ledpins [ random ( 0, numleds+1 ) ], lightsw ( ) ) ;
                delay ( 4000 ) ; // 4000 = 4 seconds               
}
boolean lightsw ( )  {

 if  ( random (0,100) > 60 ) return LOW ;
   else return HIGH ;
}


 
================

Sketch uses 2,130 bytes (0%) of program storage space.  Maximum is 253,952 bytes.
Global variables use 27 bytes (0%) of dynamic memory, leaving 8,165 buyes for local variables.  Maximum is 8,192 bytes.


 =================



The only difference to the expansion board is wiring up the 7th output of each chip, all 14 outputs of the driver chips are used.
 
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

I decided to make a random lighting controller for my structures.  The Arduino UNO micro processor is perfect for my project.  The cost is very low due to the Arduino being "Open Architecture".   The Arduino can drive 14 output ports, each port can deliver 20ma at 5 volts.  That is the max current available and posts on the Internet say 'to be on the safe side keep the current below 15ma per port".

I rarely operate me LEDs over 10ma so I'm in the "Safe Zone".  I also have many structures with 12 volt incandescent bulbs for lighting.  The 12 volt incandescent bulbs can draw anywhere from 40 to 100ma at 12 volts, I operate my 12 volt bulbs in the vicinity of 9 volts for longer life but mainly for realism.  A small incandescent bulb operating near max voltage doesn't look very realistic, toy like to me.

To obtain a higher current output from the UNO I came up with a simple 500ma per channel driver chip.   It is rather a simple project again because of the Arduino open architecture.  The UNO will direct drive the TD62304AP seven channel driver chip.  The UNO 5 volt regulator will provide the power to the logic side of the driver chip and the driver outputs will switch the ground side of the lighting with an input from 1 to 50 volts at up to 500ma per channel.

Each channel of the driver chip requires .320ma from the UNO, as there is such little current needed from the UNO if you would like to monitor the outputs LEDs can also be used directly from the UNO outputs.  My design allows for monitoring.

To get started on this project here is what you need.


The Arduino UNO is available on eBay for under $5 including a USB programming/power cable.  

The UNO Expansion Boards come in several versions, most come with the Arduino connectors.  This particular board has paired links that make building this driver circuit easier.  This board has a part number of 64502SP13-10. 

I haven't been able to find it with that number, only with "paired links".   Cost of this board is between 2 for $5 and 4 for $8 from this eBay seller.

http://www.ebay.com/itm/4x-Prototype-PCB-for-Arduino-UNO-R3-Shield-Board-DIY-/252852761647?hash=item3adf32f42f:g:nrUAAOSwAL9UcMmL



The TD62304AP Driver chips are also available on eBay under $2.  The 16 pin DIP sockets are available at any electronic store (Radio Shack).

I normally buy almost all of my electronic parts in bulk off eBay.

I buy the single row 40 pin .1"/.254mm breakable sockets off eBay.  The sockets can be used for either male or female connectors.  For a better male fit to the socket I buy the male header strips, the pins are a bit larger in diameter and fit tighter into the sockets.

I worked up a CAD drawing of the UNO expansion board.



I have posted a downloadable drawing in PDF format on my Google Drive.   

When wiring the expansion board the output terminals are not in order, Pin 0 is output #1 then it skips #1 & #2.  Pins #3 through Pin #13 are outputs #2 through #14.





 

This is my finished controller.



The 16 pin micro strip connector at the bottom is the UNO processor switched ground outputs 1 through 14 (Max 20ma each port, to protect heat build up I would recommend a Max of 15ma per port), Pin #15 is -5 volts or ground & Pin #16 is +5 volts.  This connector can drive LEDs directly.



The 16 pin strip above the chips is the high current switched ground (500MA).  Pins 1 through 14 are the high current lamp drivers, pin 16 goes to the red terminal block screw, any DC voltage from 1 to 50 volts.


You can do a copy and paste to your Arduino UNO and you're in business.


By changing the number in red you can change the delay portion of the sketch.  I like my on off duration long. 

All in all this project is one of my very best, I have three random light controllers in operation and working driving three triple story houses.


Update: For those that want to use 14 LEDs here is a simple wiring diagram.

The wiring diagram above can also be used as a test bench tool for checking the operation of the Arduino UNOs when used as a Random Lighting Controller with LEDs without the high current driver expansion board.


September 28, 2017 Update:

The drawings below are revamped for a simple high current driver with a single 20 pin 90° angle Arduino connector.

This version uses a standard Arduino expansion board, not the paired board above.  I buy these off eBay from Electronics Salon.



The pins on the driver chips are wired from 1 to 7 on IC-1 to the 20 pin connector pins 1 to 7.  IC-2 pins 1 to 7 to the 20 pin connector pins 8 to 14.

The ICs need a 5 volt supply for the internal logic from either the Arduino +5V or an external source on pin 17.

Because I'm using #28 gauge ribbon cable between the Arduino UNO and the house lighting I doubled up the the 8½ volt supply wires (pins 15 & 16) to carry the full load of 550ma to all 14 bulbs.

Five wires to the 16 pin connector (yellow, green, blue, violet & grey) go through the board and are soldered direct to the connector pins so that the board will clear the USB connector on the UNO, very close fit.


Arduino Uno Expansion board,  Wiring side ↑  Top of board ↓





As Built Arduino UNO High Current Driver Expansion Boards.

Getting in deeper with the Arduino programming I have improved my Random Lighting Controller.  With the help of some Model Railroad Forum members I have refined the Arduino Sketch for better operation.  The new Sketch below can be copy and paste to an UNO, no wiring changes are necessary.

++++++++++++++++

#define numleds  14                                                      
byte ledpins [ ] =  { 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13 } ;
void setup( )  {
    randomSeed(analogRead(0));                
    for ( int  i=0; i <= numleds;  i++ )  {     
    pinMode ( ledpins [ i ], OUTPUT) ;
    digitalWrite ( ledpins [ i ] , HIGH) ;
   }
  
}
void loop ( )  { 
                digitalWrite ( ledpins [ random ( 0, numleds+1 ) ], lightsw ( ) ) ;
                delay ( 5000 ) ;                  
}
boolean lightsw ( )  {

 if  ( random (5,150) > 60 ) return LOW ;
   else return HIGH ;
}
 

++++++++++++++++  

The above Sketch will make the lighting truly random with longer on and off timing.

++++++++++++++++
Update October 18, 2017

I have increased my Arduino UNO Light Controller to 20 ports.  The pictures below are the high current driver expansion boards.

I added a third high current driver chip (TD62304AP) to the expansion board.



I modified a duel row Arduino connector adding an additional 8 contacts.  The weird connector will accommodate the 6 additional ports plus a spare (7) and one for power.

Because the driver chip is 7 channel I included a port for the 7th output even though the Arduino UNO R3 doesn't have the capacity for the 7th output on the driver chip.  The 8th pin is power, that will help prevent voltage drop for the additional load.

To obtain the additional 6 ports the Sketch requires adding the 6 Analog inputs as outputs on the UNO.

To accommodate the 6 added ports I came up with a Mel connector made from dual row 16 pin Arduino angle connector (32 pins).  I cut off 8 pins from the dual 16 pin connector to end up with a 24 pin. 



 The 16 conductor cable works great for a 14 port controller, I doubled the power wiring to support full current load of 600ma.



I went with a 26 conductor flat ribbon cable for the 20 port controller.  I used 5 wires out of the the 26 as 8½ volt supply power.  With all the bulbs on the main power will be 1 amp.  The ribbon cable is #28 AWG wire rated at 230ma Circular Mils X 5 #28 wires = #16 AWG at 3.7 amps.


++++++++++++++++


The sketch below has been updated to 20 ports.

++++++++++++++++



#define numleds  20                                                      
byte ledpins [ ] =  { 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19 } ;


void setup( )  {
    randomSeed(analogRead(0));                
    for ( int  i=0; i <= numleds;  i++ )  {     
    pinMode ( ledpins [ i ], OUTPUT) ;
    digitalWrite ( ledpins [ i ] , HIGH) ;
   }
  
}
void loop ( )  { 
                digitalWrite ( ledpins [ random ( 0, numleds+1 ) ], lightsw ( ) ) ;
                delay ( 6000 ) ;                  
}
boolean lightsw ( )  {

 if  ( random (5,150) > 60 ) return LOW ;
   else return HIGH ;
}
  

++++++++++++++++

The board wiring for the third driver chip to the connector is straight forward adding ports 14 - 19. The  Arduino UNO will except 14 -19 programming for A0-A5 ports



Notice the third IC is inverted, that made the wiring much simpler.  The IC to board connector wiring is color coded.

Because of the 6 additional ports I also made some minor changes to the timing.

All in all I'm very impressed with the improved operation of the Random Lighting Controller. 



Update October 10, 2018

Because  of the random operation of the controller I needed a way to check the high current driver board.  I made a plug that plugs onto the driver board connector with 20 2mm 12 volt Grain of Wheat bulbs.  Using ⅛" copper foil Tape for the bulb voltage source I soldered the bulbs to the connector.  Pins 15 & 16 are voltage in, in my case 8½ volts.




The copper foil tape made it easy to solder the bulbs to the connector.

I wrote a program to illuminate all 20 bulbs for 5 seconds then sequence them individually.

Here is my sketch:

void setup(){
  pinMode(0, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(1, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(2, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(3, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(4, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(5, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(6, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(7, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(8, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(9, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(10, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(11, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(12, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(13, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(14, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(15, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(16, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(17, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(18, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(19, OUTPUT);
}

void loop(){

  delay(5000);

  digitalWrite(0, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(1, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(2, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(3, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(4, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(5, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(6, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(7, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(8, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(9, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(10, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(11, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(12, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(13, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(14, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(15, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(16, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(17, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(18, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(19, HIGH);


  digitalWrite(0, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(0, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(1, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(1, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(2, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(2, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(3, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(3, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(4, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(4, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(5, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(5, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(6, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(6, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(7, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(7, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(8, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(8, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(9, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(9, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(10, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(10, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(11, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(11, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(12, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(12, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(13, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(13, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(14, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(14, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(15, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(15, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(16, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(16, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(17, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(17, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(18, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(18, HIGH);
  delay(500);
  digitalWrite(19, LOW);
  delay(1500);
  digitalWrite(19, HIGH);
  delay(500);
 

 
}


Each bulb will be on for 1½ seconds and off for a ½ second.

August 18, 2018 Heavy Weight SP Club Lounge Pullman

This post is about the construction of my final Heavy Weight Pullman car.  Both the SP Lark and Owl passenger trains had a Club Lounge car. 

The 479 mile Lark Route was from San Francisco through the San Joaquin Valley over the Tehachapi Mountains to Los Angles and took 13 hours.  The SP Lark ran from 1910 until 1968.  The Lark used GS3-GS6 4-8-4 power for the valley floor and Cab Forwards from Bakersfield up the 2.2% grade over Tehachapi Mountains to negotiate the 19 tunnels between the Valley Floor and Tehachapi.  The Lark was streamlined in 1941 but still pulled with steam power until 1955.  Steam power was replaced with diesel Alco PAs on the Lark San Joaquin Valley Route in 1955.

The Club Lounge car started out as an Athearn #1893 SP Diner BB Kit. 

In all versions of my Athearn passenger cars I start by removing the Athearn weights and filling the center depression with #8 Bird Shot giving me more usable depth in the car for the interiors.


Because I power all of my passenger cars lighting from a single 4 volt power supply in the baggage car I run power the full length of every car.  Early on I used #28 AWG wire but have since changed over to ⅛" wide copper foil tape, one strip on each side of the bottom frame. 





The picture above shows the ⅛" wide copper foil tape attached to the side of the bottom frame wall.  The foil tape has an adhesive backing.  The foil is very thin and must be applied with care to prevent it from tearing.

All of my heavy weight Pullmans have a pigtail hanging out the end doors through the diaphragms to pass the 4 volts from the baggage (Power Supply) car to the observation car.  I rarely uncouple my passenger cars so the wires between cars isn't a problem and can't be seen because of the diaphragms.  Because I rarely uncouple them I use Kadee Scale Shelf Couplers on every car to reduce accidental uncoupling.

I use 2.54mm round pin header strip micro connectors on each end of every car with super flexible 30 AWG stranded copper wire. 



I polarize the between car connectors so that it keeps the correct polarity for the LEDs.  To see the connector modification process click here.








The picture above shows the standard 2.54mm round pin header strip micro connectors for connecting the shell to the frame, the 2KΩ potentiometer for setting the car light brightness.  The connector on the upper right is the power to the shell ceiling LEDs.  The center connector is for the power to the table lamps.  The lower connector towards the side is used as a terminal post for the incoming 4 volt power.

I attach the shell to frame connectors using Super Glue / CA.  I glue the floor female connector first then plug in the male connector then add glue to the connector and place the shell on the frame.  This aligns the connectors eliminating a wire jumper between the shell and frame.  For testing purposes I use a 12" male to female "extension cord"  






The picture below is the interior sub floor with the chairs, sofas and spaces for the magazine holding tables.  The chairs and sofas are my resin castings.


The white area is where the bar and staff rooms will be.



Here I've added the bar and staff rooms.


The curved bar is constructed from two layers of .02" sheet Styrene, the room walls are single .04" Styrene.


The magazine racks/table lamps have been added. 


The magazine rack/tables are made from  Evergreen 258 Rectangular Tubing, 3/16" x 5/16".  The table lamps are 3mm warm white LEDs with lampshades made from Evergreen 225 Tubing.  The lamp base is a 3mm plastic bead from Hobby Lobby.



All but three figures are my resin castings, I hand painted all the figures with Acrylic Crafters paints.



This is a waitress resting in the Waitress Staff Room with an off duty waitress.


The various colored chair scheme came from pictures of the real SP Lark Lounge interiors.

Happy wedding couple in the lounge.


A couple of pictures taken with reduced ambient lighting.




The finished and assembled Club Lounge car taken at reduced ambient lighting.  The digital meter shows the current of all the LEDs in this car, I adjusted the current of each car to about 2ma at 4 volts, some lower and some higher.  The total current for all 10 cars is about 25ma at 4 volts.




March 18, 2018 SP Heavy Weights

I have been sluggish with updating my blog, sorta comes with age.  This post will be the on going progress of my current project.  Feel free to ask questions or comment at melsmodelrailroad@gmail.com 

After finding an old video of a Cab Forward pulling a string of Heavy Weight Pullmans out of Bakersfield (I think it was the Lark) in the middle 40s I decided to add some HW passenger cars to my fleet.

Bakersfield to Saugus  Cab Forward video


I began by attending the Annual Kern County Train Show in early March.  I picked up five used Athearn Heavy Weight cars for $5 each, should have bought more. 😢

There wasn't a HW baggage car at a reasonable price so I went to the old standby, eBay.  I picked up a baggage car and a coach for $8.

I stripped everything down to the bare shell in preparation to be painted.  Four of the cars had Walthers diaphragms so I decided to try them on my layout.  My smallest mainline radius is 26" so I'm hoping they will be OK.  I had two pairs of Walthers and ordered another four pair.

I also picked up a second HW baggage car (IHC) off eBay, I plan on doing a kitbash with it.  The SP had several shorty baggage cars so the IHC will become a shorty.

All eight cars are in excellent condition.

This is where I'm at (March 18).




The white car is the IHC baggage that will become the shorty.

I have completed the Athearn Baggage car, I installed the electronics to power the LED lighting for all of the HW cars.  I'm going to use the end doors for the wires between cars, they will be hidden by the diaphragms.

This is the finished electronics.




 
This is the on board charger for the 1000mah Lithium battery.  The two small parts at the top right next to the mounting screw are the Red and Green LEDs for charge indicators, Red - Charging, Green - Charged.  They can be seen through the larger door windows. 

The TP4056 comes with a USB connector mounted between the two 2mm screws on the left (power in), I removed the USB connector and used the solder tabs under the screws for the connections for the 5 volts power in and the 4 volts out to the battery on the right (Battery out).  I went with 2mm solder tabs instead of soldering to the board.




I used the Athearn HW trucks with home made wiper contacts (Kadee coupler springs) and some superflex #30 wire for power pickup.  I installed Athearn metal wheels, all twelve wheels pickup rail power.

The power is routed to a 1½ amp bridge rectifier then to a LM7805 5 volt regulator.  The 5 volts from the regulator feeds the TP4056 charger and the charger goes directly to the battery.  

I glued a magnetic latching read switch to the underside of the roof to turn on and off the 4 volt passenger lighting when running in DC mode.  A simple wave of a small magnet above the baggage car roof will operate the reed switch.

If everything works out as planned I will add a Digitrax FL1 single function DCC decoder later to control the lighting when running in DCC mode.

I was worried about a problem should a car derail and cause a short in the power wiring.  The LED power distribution is less than 50ma but with a 1000ma battery a short could do some serious damage.  I found some resetable fuses made by Littlefuse rated at 50ma so I installed a micro connector to hold the fuse.


My Daylight streamline passenger cars draw a bit over 60ma so I bought some 100ma fuses for their power unit.  The Daylight power unit has a 5000ma battery so it's safe too with the 100ma fuse.


While waiting for my LHS to get me the SP Lark/Owl colors I have continued with the interior lighting of the observation car.

Here is a typical HW Observation/Business car floor plan.



I use 5mm wide angle warm white LEDs for all of my interior lighting.

I use 10K resistors for low level lighting and 4.7K for high level lighting.  Multiple LEDs work better a lower light than a single or double LEDs at a brighter level.





The view from below the car shows the two LEDs for the vestibule.


The SMT 1206 Red LED is very bright and it is only drawing .5ma, I might have to drop the current more to lower the brightness.

I added some figures standing on the Vestibule.



I drilled .02" (#76) hole in the bottom of the figures and super glued a short piece of .02" Phosphor Bronze rod as a support.  I drilled several .021 (#75) holes in the floor of the Vestibule to position the figures.  The rod fits tight enough in the floor that the figures don't swivel around.

 ---------------------



I made the curved seat from individual seats from my earlier castings.  I made a mold of it for future use.

I've finished the interior and it's ready for occupancy.  I decided to come up with some table lamps for those that would like to read while riding the rails.


I made a couple of table lamps from 5mm warm white LEDs, the tables are Athearn Streamline windows and painted dark brown.  I made the table legs from the LED pins and they plug into a micro connector mounted in the floor of the car.



They look pretty good without ambient lighting.

I have experimented making lamps using LEDs and they look pretty good.  I picked up some 3mm plastic beads at Hobby Lobby to use for the table lamp bases.  That was a real improvement over my hand made bases.  While I was in the experimental mode I tried my hand making some floor lamps too.  This is a picture of a few of my lamps.



The floor lamp is supported by the LED wires, I separated the leads with a #11 blade then coated them with Super Glue Gel then sanded and applied several coats of TCP primer.  After a good sanding I painted the support with Deco Art Metallics Splendid Gold.  I halved one of the 3mm beads for the lamp base.

The table lamp (LED) on the right has a 4.7KΩ resistor in series, at 4 volts it draws 300ųa. 


Here is the IHC Baggage car being Kitbashed.



I chopped the car at the center of the dual door so that one door can be removed.


I took cut a second section out of the center to shorten the overall length of the car.

After a bit of fill and sand I shot it with Rust-Oleum Automotive Primer.

This is my kitbash with SP Lark colors ready for finishing.


Things are coming along pretty good, this is my heavy weight fleet ready to decal.



I finished my first Heavy Weight, the Athearn 70' baggage car.



It turned out pretty good.  It's finished and ready to go.  The electronic and lighting work as designed and I used .040" clear Styrene sheet for the windows.  The Styrene looks better than the Athearn windows, no light reflection on the bottom sill like in the Athearn windows. 

I started making castings for the interiors, I made 8 seat seat castings.  There are seven chairs on each side of the castings and the day coaches need 16 chair seats on each side.



I'll tackle the bed/seats for the sleepers next.

I bought an Athearn HW diner off eBay new in the box kit.  I painted it Southern Pacific Lark Grey.

The flowing pictures are of my lighting procedure for all of my Heavy Weight cars.
 


The picture above shows using number 8 bird shot for weight.  The depressed area in the center of the car frame holds two ounces of bird shot, the same weight as the Athearn metal weights.  By using the bird shot for weight I gained ¼" of usable space lowering the interior so that I don't have to cut off the legs of the passenger and SP staff figures to keep them in proper proportion. 

This shows the pass through wiring and the connector for the LEDs in the shell.  I went to inline mounted connectors instead of a jumper wire between the frame and shell.



I drilled two holes in the frame to hold the male connector then with the female connector plugged into the male and a dob of super glue gel on the female I set the shell in place to fix the correct position of the female connector so that it mates correctly to the male.

Because I'm using diaphragms on my HW cars I'm using a short polarized jumper to connect between cars.   I went with polarized connectors because of the LEDs.  The micro connectors are quick disconnect type and I use Kadee Scale Shelf Couplers to prevent accidental uncoupling.

The jumpers won't be seen passing through the diaphragms. 



When I'm working on my painted cars and locomotives I use a hand towel to prevent scuffing the paint.

I'm sorta jumping around on this project.  This is a coach with the seats installed and painted Lark Light Grey.  Next step on this car will be painting the carpets.





Progress is slowly coming around, I'm currently working on the interior of the diner.

I ordered some restaurant chairs from Shapeways for the diner.

I didn't order enough chairs to include the side tables so I have more on the way.



I tweaked the car LED lighting to balance the eating area and slightly brighter in the kitchen.  By using wide angle warm white LEDs is was able to keep the LED current very low with realistic looking light.



I've changed the wiring of my coaches to make the lighting adjustable.  I changed the series resistor to each LED from 4.7KΩ to 330Ω and added a 2KΩ 25 turn potentiometer in series to the paralleled LEDs.  I mounted the pot in the open door on the forward end of the car.  The diaphragms will hide the pot from view.

The coach is on the left and my diner is on the right.  I went with 1" LED spacing in the coach and ¾" spacing in the dinning area to get better light distribution.  I'll make the final light adjustments after I have painted the interiors and added the passengers.

The current is adjustable from 500 microamps to 29 milliamps for total LED current from the 4 volt source in the baggage power car.  The coach looks good at 2ma with the unpainted interior and the diner looks good at 3ma.

I have equipped all of my Heavy Weight Passenger cars with Walthers
933-429 Diaphragms.


   
Seat Modification:

 I bought some IHC coach interiors many years ago and made molds of them to make my own interiors.  The seat spacing isn't correct for my Athearn Heavy weight coaches.  I cut up two of my castings to correct the spacing so that each seat matched the window spacing of the Athearn coaches.  The original IHC seat configuration was made up of two sections of 14 seats, 7 on each side.  I stayed with 14 seat sections for my new mold with the correct spacing.
 


The picture above is the new mold with the correct spacing and a casting ready to install in a Heavy Weight coach.

I have finished the Observation car.  I have all the lights working the way I want and I populated it with hand painted passengers.


The painting went better than expected.  I used flat Crafters Acrylic paint, it took about three hours to paint the 20 figures. 






The three ladies on the rear platform are prepainted Preiser figures.




1

With the success of my Observation car interior I decided to tackle my Diner.


It didn't go easily, between dropping things and the figures fighting me it took six hours to get it to this point.


I still have to detail and populate the kitchen but that will have to wait until another day, this on really got to me.


More to follow soon